An Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography?

Table of Contents

An Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

Extreme ultraviolet lithography, or EUV, is a type of optical lithography used in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. This technology uses extremely short pulses of light to create high-resolution patterns on a wafer. These patterns are then etched into the substrate to form an integrated circuit.

Table of content:

  1. Source-mask optimization is helpful for lithography applications
  2. The benefit of EUV lithography
  3. A wafer and its components
  4. Usage of Dose-dependence analysis
  5. Comparison of EUV lithography with BEUV
  • Source-mask optimization is helpful for lithography applications
  • Source-mask optimization is an important resolution enhancement technique for lithography applications. It involves re-adjusting point sources in the pupil. The objective is to increase contrast on the wafer.
  • Several algorithms have been proposed for achieving this goal. These methods include source and mask optimization, partial sampling strategies, and spatial domain joint optimization.

Example of source-mark optimization

For example, the joint source and mask optimization method is a popular choice, but it has a few drawbacks. Firstly, it requires a user to provide a good starting solution. This means that it may require several iterations to obtain a robust solution. Secondly, the algorithm requires various ad hoc weights to be adjusted. And finally, there are limitations to the standard optimization method.

Usage of NXE M3D+model

Specifically, it is difficult to implement direct optimization of a mask in a linear programming problem. To get around this problem, an approach has been developed to use a fast NXE M3D+ model that accurately predicts reflective 3D mask effects.

Implementation of spatial optimization module 610

  • In addition, it is possible to perform source-mask optimization iteratively.
  •  A module known as spatial optimization module 610 has been implemented to do this. 
  • Besides, this module can modify one or more objectives, compensate for the real component of EMF effects through shape manipulation and apply an EMF correction algorithm.
  • Finally, it is important to note that source-mask optimization has been around for a while. However, it has recently been enhanced and refined.
  • One of the techniques is based on social learning particle swarm optimization (SL-PSO). This algorithm is designed to enhance optimization efficiency through social learning strategies. Another approach is to employ a genetic algorithm to identify optimal solutions.

An important technique for extreme ultraviolet lithography

Source-mask optimization is an important resolution improvement. The technique is. It uses a controller to optimize the geometry of the source and mask.

  • The benefit of EUV lithography
  • Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) has gained industrial acceptance in the semiconductor industry.
  •  The EUV lithography is able to produce patterns with high resolution, and single-digit patterning resolution.
  •  This technology can be used for high-volume manufacturing but requires new photoresists that can print low EUV doses.

Currently, most low-dose EUV resists being based on chemical amplification. However, a new generation of photoresists that can print high-quality patterns with feature sizes below 20 nm will be required.

Optical absorption coefficients and the wavelength of choice are important. Absorption of the photons increases as the wavelength increases, but a large part of the sensitivity is dependent on the photoresist material. For example, organic photoresists have lower absorption at BEUV than at EUV, and fluorinated materials have a higher sensitivity.

Chemical composition

is another important factor to consider. While in, they are not suitable elements for BEUV. Inorganic compounds are an alternative to BEUV. Tin, with a high absorption cross section at 92 eV, is an ideal element for extreme ultraviolet photoresists.

Photoresists are helpful for BUEV

  • Photoresists will need to be developed to meet specific requirements for BEUV, including sensitivity and low defect density. HSQ and Inria IB are two photoresists that have been demonstrated to have improved sensitivity at BEUV. At both wavelengths, Inria IB is red, whereas HSQ is blue.
  • Using a high-resolution broadband mask allows researchers to directly compare the performance of photoresists at various wavelengths. For example, the Z-parameter of HSQ is similar at both wavelengths. Similarly, Inria IB has rougher edges.
  • These results are an indication that a transition from EUV to BEUV is a feasible and straightforward process. However, will require more.
  • A wafer and its components

A wafer is a lyophilized (retardant) matrix composed of two components: gelatin and sodium alginate. It is intended to bypass the gastrointestinal tract in order to deliver active compounds to the body’s systemic circulation. These compounds have been shown to be particularly effective in the treatment of certain inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and psoriasis. Unlike a compressed counterpart, an oral lyophilized wafer is capable of sustained drug release. The latest generation of wafers can be incorporated with other excipients, such as polysorbate 80, to improve the efficacy of the end product.

Benefits of Wafer

  • There are numerous commercial and experimental systems out there.
  •  However, the benefits of a wafer over a more traditional method of administration are not always readily apparent.
  •  For example, wafers may be contraindicated in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus postoperatively. 
  • Therefore, it’s a good idea to familiarize yourself with the pros and cons of these devices.

Wafers have a number of advantages over other forms of delivery, including ease of use, convenience, and the ability to bypass the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, lyophilized wafers are able to sustain the release of a wide range of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungals, and antacids. They can also be used as an alternative to or in place of a conventional capsule. As such, they can be a cost-effective solution for many patients. Additionally, they provide the benefit of being able to administer the medicine to a larger group of people.

Example of Wafer

One example is iX Biopharma’s WaferiX sublingual wafer. This technology consists of a small, oblong wafer, made of proprietary freeze-drying manufacturing processes and designed to optimize the dissolution of all of its components. It is manufactured in Australia, where it is lauded as a true innovator in the pharma industry.

  • Usage of Dose-dependence analysis

Dose-dependence analysis is the process of identifying the optimal dose of a drug to treat a disease. Various stages of drug trials are designed to achieve this goal. For instance, a small dose of a new drug is compared with a larger one to see if the larger dose is more effective. The same goes for evaluating the efficacy of increasing the dosage of a drug. This is especially important in pharmaceutical development. Besides, if the target dose is too high, there is a chance of undesired side effects.

The initiative of the European Medicines Agency

  • As part of its dose-finding multi-stakeholders discuss the various facets of the subject.
  •  Among other things, this multi-day event highlighted the latest and greatest in scientific research and best practices in dose-dependence analysis.
  •  After a thorough review of the literature and a series of hands-on workshops, a team of researchers distilled the best practices and innovations from the hundreds of eminently useful papers and presentations into a user-friendly R package. In the spirit of transparency, the EMA is happy to share its findings with the rest of the pharma community.
  • A dose-dependence analysis can be performed on a single study or across multiple studies. The methods, if done correctly, should produce a slew of relevant findings in a matter of seconds. One should also be cognizant of the fact that a standardized version of this method can be applied to observational data.

It is not for nothing that the most successful drug developers have a dedicated team devoted to evaluating the optimum doses. Using this approach, a streamlined dose-response curve is generated which can be used to select an appropriate target dose for a given study.

  • Comparison of EUV lithography with BEUV

There is a debate in the industry as to whether Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography will be the next step in chip manufacturing. Some companies have put EUV on their roadmaps for 7 nm and some have already started making chips with EUV. Nevertheless, there are still important technological challenges to overcome before the technology can be applied to high-volume chip manufacturing.

  • The main question is, “Can we make a chip with EUV?” The answer depends on the wavelength of radiation and the chemistry of the photoresist. 
  • This article explores the possibilities for component technologies for a 13.5 nm EUV source and the advantages of using a 6.5 nm photoresist.

To compare the performance of EUV and BEUV, the authors measured the average power for the two systems. They found that the BEUV average power is based on the same platform as the EUV.

While the HSQ shows similar values at both wavelengths, the CAR has rougher edges at BEUV. In addition, the reflectivity bandwidth is narrower. Consequently, better inter-layer diffusion control is needed to achieve high reflectivity.

During the past year, EUV resists having shown improved performance. However, line-edge and contact-hole roughness remain a concern.

Optical absorption

Optical absorption is a key factor in the resolution and sensitivity of the photoresist. A low optical absorption coefficient increases the LER. It is important to remember that there is an intrinsic increase in LER as the photon wavelength approaches the lithography wavelength.

As a result, a decrease in resolution is expected at shorter wavelengths. The resulting decrease in photoresist sensitivity will require the development of efficient masks.

Currently, EUV has lower energy photons. Higher energy photons produce secondary electrons, which scatter in the photoresist. These secondary electrons have lower energy than the primary electrons.


Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography is a technique that uses light with a wavelength of 13.5 nm. It is a form of optical lithography that is used to create circuits with very small features.

EUV lithography is a new technology that is capable of generating high-quality, high-density chips. Chipmakers can use the method to produce smaller, faster chips with better resolution.

The technique is useful for semiconductor diagnostics and chemical dynamical studies. However, the technology’s main use is for high-volume chip manufacturing.

There are many important technical issues facing EUVL, one of which is the resist material. A resist with good sensitivity, low outgassing, and high contrast is essential.